1. What is Diabetes:
What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a metabolic disorder. Also called diabetes mellitus. The use of digested food for the growth and energy of our body. It is called metabolism. The food we eat turns into glucose. Which is a form of sugar.
This sugar reaches the whole body through the blood. This blood glucose is the principal source for fuel for our bodies. When the food has digested the glucose from the digested food makes its way to our bloodstream. The cells in your bodies use the glucose for growth and energy.
Insulin requirement is therefore necessary. So that glucose in the blood becomes absorbed in those cells where it uses for growth and energy. Without insulin, blood sugar does not enter our cells, where this result is required as a result of increased blood sugar levels, as well as do not provide the necessary energy to the cells.
Therefore after eating the pancreas automatically releases an adequate amount of insulin to move the glucose in the blood to the cells and thus providing energy to the cells and also lowering the blood sugar levels.
In one diabetic, the level of glucose in the blood increases. This is due to the body’s inability to absorb glucose from the blood. The inability to absorb glucose is a result of cells not being able to respond to insulin or the pancreas not producing enough insulin. The build-up of glucose in the blood results due to this.
This build-up of sugar can cause damage in the body also even though the blood has plenty of glucose the cells go not get it for their needs such as growth and energy.
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What is insulin?
Insulin is a hormone which is provided in the pancreas. It makes the cells in our body absorb glucose from the blood. Store glucose in the form of glycogen in the liver and muscles.
This stored content stops the body from using the fat as a source of energy. When the blood has very little or no insulin; it starts using the fat as a source of energy. Insulin also acts as a control signal to other body systems such as amino acid uptake by the body cells.
In all animals the insulin is not identical; the level of strength varies. Porcine insulin is the insulin which is from the pig, it is the most similar to human insulin. Now with genetic engineering, we are able to produce human insulin synthetically.
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What is Pancreas?
The pancreas is located high up in the abdomen and lies across your body where the ribs meet at the bottom. It is a part of the digestive system. The shape of this organ is comparable to that of a leaf and it is about six inches long.
The width of the pancreas is called a head. Whereas the narrow edge is called the tail. The middle part is referred to as body.
The pancreas has to principal functions:
1. It produces pancreatic digestive juices.
2. It produces insulin along with other digestive hormones.
The part of the pancreas that produces insulin and other hormones is called endocrine pancreas. Whereas the production part of digestion juice is known as the exocrine pancreas.
Insulin is released when glucose is present in the blood also when protein is ingested insulin is released. After you had food the blood sugar rises insulin makes it possible for the glucose to enter the cells and where it can be used by the cells for energy.
With the pancreas, the Islets of Langerhans contain Beta cells; these cells are responsible for the synthesis of insulin. There is about 1 to 3 million Islet of Langerhans present in the endocrine part of the pancreas. This is just one-fiftieth of the pancreas’s total mass.
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Treatment of Diabetes:
Diabetes is treatable but it is a lifetime disease in almost all cases. There is no known cure for Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. The treatment for Type 1 diabetes is mainly injections of insulin plus some exercise and dietary adherence.
People with Type 2 diabetes are treated with exercise, tablets and a special diet, in some cases insulin injections may also be required.
If diabetes is not adequately controlled, patients may be at risk of developing complications such as ketosididosis, hypoglycemia, and nonctotic hyperosmolar coma.
Long term complications with diabetes could be chronic kidney failure, retinal damage, cardiovascular diseases, poor healing of wounds, gangrene on the feet, nerve damage, and erectile dysfunction.
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2. Signs and Symptoms of Diabetes:
You can have diabetes and be completely unaware. This is due to the reason that the symptoms of diabetes in the early stages when seen on their own seem harmless.
But, earlier this disease is diagnosed the better are the chances of avoiding serious complications. Below are the most common symptoms associated with diabetes.
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If you have been going to the bathroom more often recently, you might be having diabetes. When the glucose levels in the blood rise beyond a certain level the frequency of urination increases.
The increase in blood glucose is caused if your insulin is ineffective or not present. To counter this increased sugar levels your kidney take up water from the blood in order to dilute the glucose levels.
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The high glucose value results in frequent urination and which in turn leads to the loss of liquid from your body. This will cause you to drink water more than usual.
If you feel thirsty all the time and the times you urinate has increased then you might be having diabetes.
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Your cells are unable to utilize the glucose as an energy source due to the decline in the insulin levels or the decline in the effectiveness of insulin. The body may react by trying to find more energy. This will lead to you becoming hungrier than usual.
This increase in weight is usually the result of one being hungry frequently and in the process eating more.
Unusual weight loss:
Weight loss is more common in patients with Type 1 diabetes. As the body is unable to make insulin and the cells are unable to get energy. The body turns to other energy sources such as fat and muscle tissue.
The Type 1 diabetes is sudden while Type 2 is more gradual this results in weight loss being more noticeable in Type 1 diabetes.
If the insulin is not present or it does not work properly, then the glucose will not be entering your cells and providing energy. This will result in you been restless and tired.
The increase irritability may be due to the lack of energy.
Blurry vision in diabetes is caused as the tissue is pulled from your eye lenses. This affects the eye’s ability to focus. This problem can be treated with proper treatment.
There are many cases where blindness may occur or prolonged vision problems can also occur.
Bruises and cuts don’t heal properly or quickly:
If you find cuts and bruises take much longer to heal or they do not heal properly then you might have diabetes. When there is more glucose present in your body, its ability to heal is undermined.
More skin or yeast infections:
In a similar manner to the above when there is more glucose in the blood, the body’s ability to recover from infection is affected. Women who have diabetes find it hard to recover from vaginal and bladder infections.
If your skin feels itchy more than usual then this is sometimes a symptom of diabetes.
Gums are red and swollen:
If your gums have become tender and are red and/or swollen then this could be a sign of diabetes. Your teeth can also become loose as the gums pull away from the teeth.
Frequent gum diseases/infections:
As the gums have become swollen/red also the body’s ability to recover from infection is affected due to the higher amount of glucose in the blood. This results in more frequent gum diseases or infections.
Sexual dysfunction among men:
If you are over the age of 50 and experiencing frequent or constant sexual dysfunction then this could be a symptom of diabetes.
Numbness or tingling:
When there is too much sugar in the body then the nerves could become damaged along with the tiny blood vessels which feed these nerves. You may experience numbness and tingling in your hand and feet then this could indicate you having diabetes.
The urine may be analyzed in a manner which is indicative of the fact that the individual has high levels of blood sugar. But, a simple urine test cannot alone diagnose diabetes. To confirm the diagnosis following test is needed to the carried out.
Haemoglobin A1c test:
For normal person less than 5.7%, in pre-diabetes stage 5.7% to 6.4% and in individuals who have diabetes it is 6.5% or higher.
Fasting blood glucose level:
If the blood glucose levels are higher than 126 mg/dL twice then the person has diabetes. If the person has levels which are from 100 to 126 mg/dL then he or she is at pre-diabetes stages and they are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Oral glucose tolerance test:
In this case, the person is given a drink with glucose if the glucose levels are higher than 200 mg/dL after 2 hours of drinking the glucose drink the person is diabetic.
Type 1 diabetes cannot be prevented but Type 2 diabetes – the most common form of diabetes is preventable. If you are overweight or have a family history of this disease then you must especially follow steps which will let you prevent the diseases.
The prevention of diabetes involves becoming physically active, losing weight and eating more healthy foods. (Health Concern And Treatment Of Diabetes)
Lots of fiber:
Eating foods which have good amounts of fiber helps to reduce the risk of diabetes by controlling your blood sugar, lowing the risk the cardiovascular diseases and also promote a healthier weight. (Health Concern And Treatment Of Diabetes)
Be more active physically:
Being physically active has a range of benefits, exercising regularly helps to lower weight, lower blood sugar, boost your bodies sensitivity towards insulin and in general keeps your body fit and healthy.
Eat whole grains:
Including whole grains in the diet helps to reduce the risk of developing diabetes as it helps to control the sugar levels in the blood. Try to at least replace half of your daily grain intake by whole grain products.
Planning your food consumption:
Three very basic things will have a major and direct impact on your blood glucose and blood lipids levels.
- What you eat
- When you eat
- How much you eat
By choosing the proper kinds of foods and also the appropriate quantities you can significantly improve your health by controlling the amount of blood glucose and blood lipids.
What does it mean to eat healthy?
Healthy eating is mostly associated with reducing the amount of food intake which is not the case. Healthy eating does not imply that you have to starve and spend much of your life desperately trying to resist temptation.
You can still eat most of the foods which you like.
All you need to be aware of is how much fat, carbohydrates, and protein you consume. In this manner, you can get the monitor you intake and get a balanced diet. (Health Concern And Treatment Of Diabetes)
Carbohydrates are found abundantly in most foods such as vegetables, fruits, sweets, bread, pasta, and yogurt. The body requires carbohydrates and we cannot live without them.
These carbohydrates are converted by our bodies into glucose inside our bodies. This glucose is required for energy and growth by our cells.
If your carbohydrate intake is the same each time you eat especially if those times are the same time each day. Then you will be well on your way towards controlling the glucose level of your blood. The first and the most important step is that you do not miss meals.
No matter what you sugar levels are you should always have a meal. By skipping meals all you will achieve is aggressive fluctuation in your blood glucose levels.
You need to avoid this kind of fluctuation to stay healthy. With regular glucose consumption, it will be easier to balance the glucose levels with proper medicine and physical activity.
To maintain optimum blood glucose control you need to maintain a proper diet which is needed to be eaten on appropriate and regular times. (Health Concern And Treatment Of Diabetes)
Variety and moderation:
Moderation and varied diet are ideal for diabetics who want to enjoy good health. The source of your carbohydrate intake should consist of a variety of food items such as grains, vegetable, and fruits. Food items which have plenty of fiber help to control the blood glucose levels.
Food items such as whole-grain and brown rice have more fiber. If you are baking or cooking always opt for whole grain flours. Another great source of fiber is pulsed.
Vegetables which are yellow or green as they have slower rate of release of carbohydrates and other vegetables; these vegetables are great for you are they do not generate spikes in the glucose levels in the blood. (Health Concern And Treatment Of Diabetes)
Amount of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats:
According to experts, your daily intake of calories should consist of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the ratio which is optimal for this condition. The ratios are as follows:
- Carbohydrates 45% to 65%
- Protein 15% to 20%
- Fats 20% to 35%
Adhering to fixed meal plans is very beneficial for your health as it provides your body a routine to respond to. The meals should be planned for fixed portion sizes and eating times and the optimal ratio of fats, protein, and carbohydrates should be maintained for each day.
The more you have meals unplanned and the more you vary your food plan the more you blood glucose levels will fluctuate.
The rewards will be worth the effort:
The ideal eating pattern for a person having diabetes is no different for a person who is not diabetic. If one aims for optimal health and fitness then you should be willing to follow a healthy diet plan as described earlier.
The diabetics have a great incentive when they follow the optimal diet as a good eating practice reduces the chances of developing complications such as kidney problems, vision problems, cardiovascular diseases, and leg and feet sores.
You will be able to create wide range of tasty and interesting meals as the foods offered for a diabetic patient is varied and extensive. (Health Concern And Treatment Of Diabetes)
Whenever you take the advice of a diabetic educator or a health care professional they you explain way different foods and also probably mention the food pyramid. The base of the food pyramids consists of foods which are rich in carbohydrates such as vegetables, fruits, and grains.
Above spaces in the pyramids has fish, meats, cheese, and milk; these are foods which are rich in protein. At the top of this pyramids are the fatty foods.
Everyone who is a diabetic and also medical associations say that you eat more foods which belong to the bottom of the pyramid and less from those which are at the top.
Always mention an expert for a meal plan as it is important to have plans for age, weight and medication. (Health Concern And Treatment Of Diabetes)
For healthy living diabetic need to be really careful with what they eat and need to maintain a diet which is good for their condition.
The diet for a diabetic should contain high amounts of fiber also it should have fresh fruits, vegetables (especially green vegetables), milk without cream, buttermilk etc. And always remember to consume only in moderation.
The person who is diabetic should eat high fiber foods such as whole grains, channa atta, millets, oats etc and should abstain from foods which have low amounts of fiber like noodles and pasta.
Consuming milk daily is also a good option as milk has a right combination of proteins and carbohydrates.
Always eat fiber-rich vegetables such as beans, broccoli, leafy vegetables, peas. Pulses are also important as they don’t tend to spike the blood glucose levels like foods which have carbohydrates. (Health Concern And Treatment Of Diabetes)
MUFA and omega -3 fatty acids which are good fats must be consumed as they are great for the body. Fruits which contain high amounts of fiber Like apples, oranges, pears, guava, and papaya should be eaten and avoided fruits like banana, grapes should be avoided.
Because there is more sugar in it. Taking a diet that is planned and balanced helps you to maintain good health.
Maintain a healthy weight:
You are at higher risks of diabetes if you are overweight. Maintaining a healthy body weight helps you to reduce the risk by significant numbers. Every kilogram of weight you lose has a surprisingly positive effect on the health and prevents diabetes.
6. Lifestyle Tips
Controlling your diabetes and help you maintain good health and avoid complications associated with diabetes such as nerve pain, foot problems, neuropathy and heart problems. You can reduce the risks of developing more problems associated with taking healthier lifestyle choices.
Losing weight or maintaining a healthy weight is one of the most important things that you can do as losing the excess body weight can help you control your blood sugars better. About 80% of the people with type 2 diabetes are overweight.
Regular physical activity helps to keep the body weight under control and also helps to maintain healthy blood pressure, triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Also, it reduces stress.
At least one should have 30 minutes of aerobic exercise 5 days in a week. Maintain a healthy diet and keep your body weight, blood pressure, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels in check. (Health Concern And Treatment Of Diabetes)
Always beware of problems related to your body and maintain healthy weight. Always monitor your blood sugar closely as high levels of sugar can damage the body.
Getting sufficient amounts of sleep is another important step in taking care of your health; sleep deprivation is really bad for the health.
Stress is really bad for the diabetic people you need to reduce stress by learning stress-reducing techniques which include meditating, practicing yoga etc.
Managing diabetes properly will help you avoid complications and you will be able to enjoy a healthy and happy life. (Health Concern And Treatment Of Diabetes)
Exercise and Diabetes :
Physical activity is crucial for a diabetic:
- Exercise helps to maintain a healthy weight
- It helps to control the blood glucose levels
- Exercise helps to reduce LDL levels
- It helps to raise the HDL levels
These are some of the health benefits that physical activity delivers and these benefits have a direct positive effect on your diabetes. Exercising also is great for general health and it helps to improve health, improve your mental state, helps you sleep better etc.
How much should I exercise?
Most experts say that at least five days of exercise each week is required. The intensity of an exercise session should be moderate and should be at least thirty minutes in duration. The following are some exercises which are of moderate intensity:
- Fast walking
What is moderate intensity physical activity?
- The breathing rate should increase
- Your heart rate should increase
- The calories burn should be 3.5 to 7 per minute
- You should reach a METs of 3 to 6
What is MET?
It stands for Metabolic Equivalent. Your MET is 1 when you are simply sitting down. While you are walking slowly in a calm manner then you MET reaches 2 or 2.5. While you’re walking normally, your MET will go up to 3 and brisk walking with raise you’re MET to 5.
If you have lived an inactive life for a while and you have not done exercise then you will need to start with light exercises and build up your strength with time. With each week which passes you should add more time or increase the intensity of your session.
Always remember that regular exercise is really important and you should at least do exercise 30 minutes 5 days each week. You can also talk to your health care provider about the exercise plan. In this manner he/she can check you before you start as certain exercises is not good for people with high blood pressure, foot problems, and eye problems. (Health Concern And Treatment Of Diabetes)
Strength training is good:
In strength training you build muscles and it involves using weights. Experts say that strength training is great for the body as it helps you build muscles.
Why join a gym:
The employee who is experienced in the gym who is qualified to train people. Doctors can send gyms a list of precautions according to your condition.
The trainer helps you follow an exercise regimen. Having a person to help and push you is great as this provides help and motivation especially if you are a beginner.
The best part about gyms is that they are all weather and you will be able to exercise no matter what the weather is outside also there are other people and trainers who are there to motivate you. (Health Concern And Treatment Of Diabetes)
in which the immune system attacks the cells which produce insulin. The people who suffer from type 1 diabetes are not able to produce insulin or produce insufficient amounts of insulin.
This type of diabetes usually affects people in children or young adults but it can also occur in people of any age.
It required that the person gets insulin shots or insulin pump. If a person suffering from type 1 diabetes does not receive insulin, he or she might die. (Health Concern And Treatment Of Diabetes)
Type 2 diabetes: This is also called non-insulin dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes and most of the cases (about 90%). This type of diabetes is the result of relative insulin deficiency or insulin resistance and it can occur at any age.
Some individual can manage their condition with diet and exercise but in some cases, people require insulin or oral drugs. This kind of diabetes can remain undetected for years and a diagnosis is usually the result due to complications or in a routine test. (Health Concern And Treatment Of Diabetes)
Gestational diabetes (GDM): In this condition, the blood glucose levels are high during pregnancy. It can result in complications both in the baby and mother. Usually, gestational diabetes disappears after pregnancy but the mother and children both are at higher risk of developing type-2 diabetes in future. (Health Concern And Treatment Of Diabetes)
Type 1 diabetes is caused by autoimmune disorder and is most of the times the combination of genetic predisposition and other additional factors which cause the immune system to start attacking cells which produce insulin, this results in the death of the insulin-producing cells and the pancreas is unable to produce insulin. (Health Concern And Treatment Of Diabetes)
Type 2 diabetes is the reason for the body’s resistance to insulin. The result is that the body cannot use the insulin produced as it should. This reduces the ability to move glucose from the blood into the cells.
With time this excess amounts of sugar in the blood, it slowly and gradually poisons the pancreas and causes it to make even lesser insulin production.
Obesity is one of the leading cause of type to diabetes about 80% of the causes in type to diabetes are related to individuals been overweight. (Health Concern And Treatment Of Diabetes)